8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
There are no data available on use of bivalirudin in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk of adverse developmental outcomes. Reproduction studies in rats and rabbits administered subcutaneously doses up to 1.6 times and 3.2 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 15 mg/kg/day based on body surface area (BSA) during organogenesis, respectively, revealed no evidence of fetal harm.
All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Reproductive studies have been performed in rats at subcutaneous doses up to 150 mg/kg/day (1.6 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area) and rabbits at subcutaneous doses up to 150 mg/kg/day (3.2 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area). These studies revealed no harm to the fetus attributable to bivalirudin.
At 500 mg/kg/day (equivalent to 5.4 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area) subcutaneously, litter sizes and live fetuses in rats were reduced. Fetal skeletal variations were also noted. Some of these changes could be attributed to maternal toxicity observed at high doses.
There is no study covering the peri-natal period because of the potential complications of drug-induced hemorrhage during delivery.
It is not known whether bivalirudin is present in human milk. No data are available on the effects on the breastfed child or on milk production.
Bivalirudin was administered to lactating rats in reproduction studies (see Data). The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for bivalirudin and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from bivalirudin or from the underlying maternal condition.
Reproduction studies conducted in lactating female rats dosed subcutaneously daily with bivalirudin at doses up to 150 mg/kg/day (1.6 times the maximum recommended human dose, based on body surface area) from day 2 through day 20 of lactation revealed no adverse developmental outcomes to the pups.
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of bivalirudin in pediatric patients have not been established.
8.5 Geriatric Use
In studies of patients undergoing PCI, 44% were ≥65 years of age and 12% of patients were ≥75 years old. Elderly patients experienced more bleeding events than younger patients.
8.6 Renal Impairment
The disposition of bivalirudin was studied in PTCA patients with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment. The clearance of bivalirudin was reduced approximately 21% in patients with moderate and severe renal impairment and was reduced approximately 70% in dialysis-dependent patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Reduce the infusion dose of bivalirudin and monitor the anticoagulant status more frequently in patients with renal impairment creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min (by Cockcroft Gault equation) [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].