The oral LD50 of spironolactone is greater than 1000 mg/kg in mice, rats, and rabbits. The oral LD50 of hydrochlorothiazide is greater than 10 g/kg in both mice and rats.
Acute overdosage of spironolactone may be manifested by drowsiness, mental confusion, maculopapular or erythematous rash, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, or diarrhea. Rarely, instances of hyponatremia, hyperkalemia (less commonly seen with ALDACTAZIDE because the hydrochlorothiazide component tends to produce hypokalemia), or hepatic coma may occur in patients with severe liver disease, but these are unlikely due to acute overdosage.
However, because ALDACTAZIDE contains both spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide, the toxic effects may be intensified, and signs of thiazide overdosage may be present. These include electrolyte imbalance such as hypokalemia and/or hyponatremia. The potassium-sparing action of spironolactone may predominate and hyperkalemia may occur, especially in patients with impaired renal function. BUN determinations have been reported to rise transiently with hydrochlorothiazide. There may be CNS depression with lethargy or even coma.
Induce vomiting or evacuate the stomach by lavage. There is no specific antidote. Treatment is supportive to maintain hydration, electrolyte balance, and vital functions.
Patients who have renal impairment may develop spironolactone-induced hyperkalemia. In such cases, ALDACTAZIDE should be discontinued immediately. With severe hyperkalemia, the clinical situation dictates the procedures to be employed. These include the intravenous administration of calcium chloride solution, sodium bicarbonate solution, and/or the oral or parenteral administration of glucose with a rapid-acting insulin preparation. These are temporary measures to be repeated as required. Cationic exchange resins such as sodium polystyrene sulfonate may be orally or rectally administered. Persistent hyperkalemia may require dialysis.