There are no human data with dopamine use in pregnant women. There are risks to the mother and fetus from hypotension associated with shock, which can be fatal if left untreated (see Clinical Considerations). In animal reproduction studies, adverse developmental outcomes were observed with intravenous dopamine HCl administration in pregnant rats during organogenesis at dosages, on a mcg/m2 basis, of one-third the human starting dosage of 2 mcg/kg/minute (90 mcg/m2/minute).
The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies carry some risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Hypotension associated with distributive shock, or shock due to reduced cardiac output are medical emergencies in pregnancy which can be fatal if left untreated. Delaying treatment in pregnant women with hypotension associated with distributive shock, or shock due to reduced cardiac output may increase the risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Life-sustaining therapy for the pregnant woman should not be withheld due to potential concerns regarding the effects of dopamine on the fetus.
Labor or Delivery
Vasopressor drugs, including dopamine, may cause severe maternal hypertension when used concomitantly with some oxytocic drugs [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Animal reproduction studies in rats and rabbits at dopamine HCl dosages up to 6 mg/kg/day intravenously (on a mcg/m2 basis, one-third and two-thirds, respectively, the human starting dosage of 2 mcg/kg/minute) during organogenesis produced no detectable teratogenic or embryotoxic effects, although maternal toxicity consisting of mortalities, decreased body weight gain, and pharmacotoxic signs were observed in rats. In a published study, administration of 10 mg/kg/day dopamine HCl (on a mcg/m2 basis, two-thirds the human starting dosage of 2 mcg/kg/minute) to pregnant rats throughout gestation or for 5 days starting on gestation day 10 or 15 resulted in decreased body weight gain, increased mortality, and slight increase in cataract formation among the offspring.
There are no data regarding the presence of dopamine in human milk, the effects of dopamine on the breastfed infant, or the effects of the drug on milk production.
Dopamine HCl infusions have been used in pediatric patients from birth through adolescence. Most reports in pediatric patients describe dosing that is similar (on a mcg/kg/minute basis) to that used in adults [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. Except for vasoconstrictive effects caused by inadvertent infusion of dopamine into the umbilical artery, adverse reactions unique to pediatric patients have not been identified, nor have adverse reactions identified in adults been found to be more common in pediatric patients.
Clinical studies of dopamine did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should start at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
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